Qatargas 1, established in 1984, consists of three trains, which, after a debottlenecking project in 2005, now produce approximately 10 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG. Twenty production wells have been drilled and completed to supply 1,600 million standard cubic feet (45 million cubic metres) of raw natural gas per day from the North Field, the largest single non-associated gas reservoir in the world.
The first shipment of LNG was delivered to Chubu Electric, our foundation customer, in January 1997.
The Qatargas 2 (QG2) project was the world's first fully integrated value chain LNG venture. It includes two world class LNG mega trains (Train 4 and Train 5) each with a capacity of 7.8 mtpa of LNG and 0.85 mtpa liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), condensate production of 90,000 barrels per day (bpd), a fleet of 14 Q-Flex and Q-Max ships and Europe's largest LNG receiving terminal, the South Hook LNG Terminal, in Milford Haven, Wales.
QG2 includes 30 offshore wells and three onshore injection wells for waste water disposal. There are three unmanned offshore platforms in Qatar's North Field which produce 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas per day. Total production is piped to shore via two wet-gas pipelines. The Liquefied Natural Gas is processed using Air Product's proprietary APX process technology. LNG production from Train 4 started in March 2009, while Train 5 became operational in September 2009.
As part of the expansion of Ras Laffan's capacity, QG2 also led to the construction of facilities for expanded LNG storage and loading, including five 145,000-cubic metre tanks and three LNG berths, a 12,000 tonne per day common sulphur system serving all Ras Laffan ventures, and an export pipeline and mooring buoy for loading condensate ships some 55 kilometres offshore.
The Qatargas 3 (QG3) project involved the construction of a new LNG mega-train (Train 6) with a capacity of 7.8 mtpa. Production from Train 6 began in November 2010.
The LNG produced by QG3 is transported to market on a fleet of ten ships, each with a capacity of approximately 210,000 to 266,000 cubic metres. The upstream platforms and infrastructure consist of three unmanned platforms, 33 wells, two subsea pipelines, and three onshore injection wells for waste water disposal, all of which are shared with the Qatargas 4 project.
QG3 produces 1.4 billion standard cubic feet of gas per day, delivering LNG and substantial volumes of condensate and LPG. QG3 utilises the same Air Products proprietary APX process technology as QG2. This helps to achieve economies of scale and integration not previously possible in the LNG industry. The QG3 and Qatargas 4 projects were developed and executed by a joint asset development team to capture synergies between the two projects.
Qatargas 4 (QG4), which began producing LNG in January 2011, completed Qatargas' planned LNG expansion projects. The project QG4 involved the construction of a new LNG mega-train (Train 7), similar to QG2 and QG3 with a production capacity of 7.8 mtpa.
The upstream platforms and infrastructure consist of three unmanned platforms (each containing 11 wells) and two subsea pipelines, which are shared with QG3. QG4 produces 1.4 billion standard cubic feet of gas per day, delivering LNG and substantial volumes of condensate and LPG, as well as high purity grade sulphur. QG4 utilises the same Air Product's proprietary APX process technology as QG2 and QG3, helping to achieve economies of scale and integration. The QG3 and QG4 projects were developed and executed by a joint asset development team to capture synergies between the two projects.
The LNG from QG4 is transported to global markets via a fleet of eight Q-Flex or Q-Max ships (each with approximately a 210,000 to 266,000-cubic metres capacity) that have been constructed in Korean shipyards.
Established in 1993, Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited (RL) consists of two trains, Trains 1 and 2 each with a production capacity of 3.3 mtpa of LNG. The LNG plant includes inlet gas reception and treatment facilities, condensate stabilisation, gas liquefaction, sulphur recovery and loading facilities; and all necessary utility and off-site systems and infrastructure.
In addition to a combined production of 6.6 mtpa of LNG, the trains also produce 44,000 barrels of stabilised field condensate per day, 4,000 barrels of plant condensate per day and 200 tonnes of granulated sulphur per day.
Three wellhead platforms supply gas and condensate from 15 offshore wells with a production capacity of 1.2 billion standard cubic feet per day (bscfd). The gas and condensate extracted from the North Field are dehydrated offshore, then transported onshore together through a 32-inch diameter, 92-km export pipeline. The offshore facilities also include two 16-inch intrafield pipelines, a riser, utilities, living-quarter platforms and a flare structure.
The first LNG cargo from RL was delivered to Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) in August 1999.
Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company Limited (II), or RL (II), established in 2001, consists of three trains each with a production capacity of 4.7 mtpa. They also produce approximately 90,000 barrels of gas condensate per day. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), butane and propane are produced at the rate of 900 and 1,300 tonnes per day respectively. The RL II trains are fed by 9 5/8-inch optimised big-bore wells, which have enabled single-wellhead platform production capacities to increase from 800 million standard cubic feet per day (Mmscfd) to 1,200 Mmscfd.
Train 4 was the first LNG train developed with concurrent acid-gas injection facilities to address environmental concerns and reduce sulphur production; it is also equipped for natural gas liquids (NGL) extraction.
Several technological firsts helped Train 3 to become one of the most optimised LNG trains ever built. These include helper motors to boost performance of turbo-compressors, reconfigured refrigerant compressors, new gas-treating technology and the use of a hydraulic turbine. Train 3 offshore facilities also marked the switch from a dry-gas (gas and condensate) to a wet-gas (gas, condensate and water) scheme, eliminating the need for process platforms and thereby reducing project costs.
The first LNG shipment from RL (II) was exported to India in February 2004.
Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas Company LImited (3), or RL (3) was established in 2005 and it consists of Trains 6 and 7 which are among the new generation of mega LNG trains, each with a production capacity of 7.8 mtpa. The new mega-trains build on the success of previous expansion projects in terms of technology, design, project specifications, existing infrastructure and location. Train 6 is fed by an expansion to existing offshore facilities that also serve Train 7, including two offshore 12-well platforms and two 100km 38-inch export pipelines to the shore. Each pipeline has an eventual transmission capacity of up to 2.1 Bscfd. Helium recovered from the raw input stream supplies Ras Laffan Helium, a helium refining plant, operated by Qatargas.
As well as generating 15.6 mtpa of LNG, the two trains together produce 110,000 barrels per day of condensate and 1.5 mtpa of liquid petroleum gas (LPG).
The first cargo from RL (3) was loaded aboard the Q-Flex tanker Al Utouriya and delivered to the Golden Pass regasification terminal in Texas, US.